What Are Exosomes and Why Are They So Critical Regarding Your Health?

First, it is important that you understand some terms in order to put this in perspective.

What is a vesicle: In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, consisting of a fluid enclosed by a double layer of lipids (fat). An exosome is a vesicle secreted from a cell.

An exosome is 10-100 nanometers in size.

What is a nanometer? A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. For example, a human hair is approximately 80,000- 100,000 nanometers wide.

One million exosomes will fit on the tip of a very sharp pencil.

An exosome is about 1,000 times smaller than the cell that secretes it.

So, an exosome is a very small fluid filled sac secreted by a cell.

Exosomes are found in all fluids of the body, amniotic fluid, blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, urine and can cross the blood-brain barrier.

Virtually every cell in the body secretes exosomes. Exosomes contain cellular products such a proteins, lipids, DNA, mRNAs, cytokines, and miRNA. They function as inter-cellular communicators. They enter your circulation and are taken up by cells throughout the body. A good analogy is that your exosomes and the cargo in an exosome act as text messages sent from a cellular device. These exosomes acting as text messages transmit important data/information and are sent to the cells throughout your body and the recipient cells’ physiology has the potential to be altered based on that message. If that text message is coming from a healthy cell, it could be very beneficial and improve your overall physiology, but if that text message is coming from a cancer cell, it could be a disaster!

Look at diagram below which summarizes the above text.

As mentioned above, exosomes are found in all body fluid. This allows scientist to do a liquid biopsy. Through very complex testing, the exosome can be isolated, and the contents examined. The DNA can be examined to detect early cancers. Studying cancer DNA exosomes allow scientist to learn more about the behavior of cancer cells and different methods of treatment.

Exosomes may be the rising star for drug delivery as many companies are hoping to use these lipid vesicles to package small molecules, proteins, RNA drugs, and even use exosomes as therapies themselves.

Big Pharma has even started to use this technology, while some say we are close to understanding the biology, it has been argued we are far off from therapeutics and diagnostics; exosome based cancer diagnostics are already available and multiple exosome therapies may begin clinical trial testing in the near future.

The field of exosomes is expanding rapidly with more and more companies sprouting up such as Evox Therapeutics which is developing exosome-based treatments for rare diseases, particularly those which require delivery to the brain; and Anjarium Biosciences developing hybridosomes which are a mix of synthetic lipid nanoparticles and natural exosomes.

As mentioned earlier, stem cells produce exosomes which produce tissue rejuvenation. However, the number of exosomes produced by a given stem cell is variable. Doesn’t it make more sense to go directly to exosomes which can be increased in number in the laboratory prior to injection?

If you decide to use exosomes in some form of therapy for yourself, it is imperative that you know the origin of the stem cells that produced the exosomes! Text message your cells only good news!

If you are interested in taking charge of your healing, please call my office at 352-629-7955 and schedule a free exosome therapy consultation.

Douglas C. Hall, M.D.

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